Writing a white paper abstract background
How to write an abstract: Avoiding Six common mistakes By Katherine L. Learning how to write an abstract for a meeting, scientific paper, case report, white paper, review, or medical article involves avoiding these 6 common mistakes that I've observed in substantive editing rewriting of manuscripts: Authors do not provide a brief background that explains aqa a level history papers tudors importance of the unresolved problem which has been investigated and described in the abstract.
Excellent abstracts include a clear, concise synopsis of the current status in the field, statement of the issue, and the significance of solving the controversy. In the example, the first two sentences provide the current status of the field and the rationale for the study.
Each scientific journal or meeting gives the length and format for submitting an abstract. A few journals require an abstract of words or less.
Most journals allow abstracts of or words, and a few journals allow words in the abstract. The format varies from an unstructured abstract with a blank space to a structured abstract with subheadings such as Background, Methods, Results, Conclusions. Abstracts on clinical studies often have the subheadings: Objective, Patients, Methods, Results, Conclusions, Implications.
Regardless, abstracts should address each of these points in a concise, detailed manner. Hypothesis and rationale are not evident. A rationale for investigating the studies is essential. Although the hypothesis was not explicitly stated in this example, the rationale was stated "Therefore, strategies to enhance the efficacy of this treatment were investigated. Methods this web page are written in the present tense.
Methods section should describe how the authors had performed the studies and analyses, and thus be written in past tense. Because of the space constraints, Methods section may provide an overview. Abstracts of clinical studies include the essential inclusion and exclusion criteria of the patient population, control subjects, the primary endpoint and, if possible, the secondary endpoints. In the example, the methods are summarized in the following 2 sentences: Isobologram analysis was performed to evaluate the interaction between the viral and chemotherapeutic agents.
Data should be analyzed with the appropriate statistical programs based on the type of variable. Results section should state whether the data from experimental conditions and controls were significantly different. If the effect in different cell lines are distinct, then both sets of data should be presented if space permits. For example, "The oncolytic effect of HSV in combination with MMC was synergistic in two of five NSCLC cell lines.
By propelling change in an array of local institutions, movement infrastructures had an enduring legacy in Mississippi. Here's how to write an abstract: What safeguards were in place to protect data integrity and accuracy? It also provides guidelines for constructing an abstract and general tips for you to keep in mind when drafting. Here's a fairly standard outline for a technical white paper: While the latter involves detailed description of feelings, situations and scenes, the former requires only facts without editorial comment or extraneous detail.
In the other three cell lines, the combined effect appeared additive. No antagonism was observed.
- A good informative abstract acts as a surrogate for the work itself.
- A good review easily takes 2—3 hours, but will pay off in spades with a smooth road to the promised land of accepted publications.
- Never say "for various reasons".
For example, "The synergistic dose of MMC neither augmented nor inhibited viral replication in vitro and HSV infection did not upregulate DT-diaphorase, which is the primary enzyme responsible for MMC activation. Conclusions are not fully supported by the data or literature. The conclusions should be based on the results and discussion sections of the manuscript or poster.
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Implications of the research should be included. In this example, conclusions reflected all the presented data and not just the synergistic combinations. Note that abstracts for successful NIH grants follow a distinct structure that highlights their proposed research. How may I help you write or edit an abstract, manuscript, white paper, review, poster, case report, grant proposal, or meeting summary?
I would be happy to discuss the editing or writing of your abstract, manuscript, review, white paper, case report, or poster. More than 50 different journals include my edited, rewritten substantive editedor written scientific and clinical articles. Scientific and Medical Writing Kimnar Group LLC KMK Consulting Services PO Box Worcester, PA Abstract Example from Journal article This abstract is from Toyoizumi et al, published in Hum Gene Therapy.
- Again, an abstract of a scientific work may include specific data that indicates the results of the project.
- What is the scope of the project?
- Be straightforward and succinct.
A replication-selective herpes simplex virus type 1 ICP Therefore, strategies to enhance the efficacy of this treatment were investigated. We determined the oncolytic activity of HSV in NCI-H cells in combination with each of four chemotherapeutic agents: The oncolytic effect of HSV in combination with MMC was synergistic in two of five NSCLC cell lines.
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The in vivo effect of this combination was then examined in a murine xenograft model. NCI-H flank tumors were directly injected with HSV 4 x 10E6 PFU followed by intravenous MMC administration 0.
After 3 weeks, the mean tumor weight in the combined treatment group was significantly less than either individual treatment in an additive manner. The synergistic dose of MMC neither augmented nor inhibited viral replication in vitro and HSV infection did not upregulate DT-diaphorase, which is the primary enzyme responsible for MMC activation.
In summary, the combination of HSV with common chemotherapeutic agents may augment the effect of HSV-based therapy in the treatment of NSCLC.