Essay on language games in english
Why talk of on games? Philosophers often create their own vocabularies by giving special meanings to ordinary terms and phrases. Thus Om uses the read article "government" not merely to mean the running of a country, but more importantly to mean self-government i.
And the logical positivists use the word "nonsense" not in its ordinary sense of "without meaning" but to refer to a statement that cannot be independently verified Ayer, ; Shawver, Giving specialized meaning to old terms allows philosophers to say things that might otherwise be difficult to say, but it can also cause havoc for the reader. If you make the natural assumption that these terms are being used in their usual sense, then the text you are reading will seem strange and paradoxical Shawver, How does one know that a philosopher is using an ordinary term in a special sense?
To make sense of these specially defined terms one must read with an eye that looks for them. It is a term that Wittgenstein teaches us as we begin to study his philosophy and it forms the foundation for much of his later work which challenges classical as well as many modern notions about language and psychology.
On language games in essay english students
The way to avoid it is to look carefully languabe what Wittgenstein says about language games, and that is what we will do in the following section of this essay. What Wittgenstein Says about Language Games: This section consists of a study of important passages in Wittgenstein which help to explain his concept of a language game. They are all taken from his book, the Philosophical Investigations, the text that Wittgenstein link to introduce the concept of a "language game.
He used this system to cross-reference comments.
- But God does not exist as a creator who is distinct from the world; he is not some being who is apart from the world and who sustains and acts in it.
- There are occasional footnotes and a preface, but everything else that Wittgenstein published in this book is contained ini these numbered aphorisms.
- Notice that Wittgenstein says that the people are trained to "react in this way" to the words of others.
You will see him do this in the passages article source shall study and we will follow his lead. He will refer to 2for example, and we know that this means aphorism 2or sometimes something like "the language game described in 2. There are occasional footnotes and a preface, but everything else that Wittgenstein published in this book is contained ini these numbered aphorisms. As it happens, Wittgenstein first introduces us to examples of language games in 2 although he does not actually introduce the term "language game" until 7.
We will start with 2. I have inserted a few explanatory comments.
Please english games in on essay language may
You can recognize my comments by the fact that I have indented Kn. Let us imagine a language The language is meant to serve for communication between a builder A and an assistant B. A is building with building-stones; there are blocks, pillars, slabs and beams. B has to pass the stones, and that in the order in which A needs them. For this purpose they use a language consisting of the words 'block', 'pillar', 'slab', 'beam'. A calls them out; --B brings the stone which he has learnt to bring at such-and-such a call.
The language in the game is non-cognitive, because it is not about making universally true statements, ezsay about communicating meaning to other players in the same game. However, they come from different games and one cannot prove or disprove the other. For example, Ubbi Dubbi, Bicycle, and sv: Englisy of these things are "language games", but Wittgenstein adds: This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Philosophy section. And when the work supervisor on one day called out "beam" the worker was to take the beam behind a fence, and on another day the task was to crush the beam with a big stone. Sometimes it will refer to the primitive models of language that Wittgenstein constructs for us to study, sometimes to the supporting language practices that enable children to learn and finally, it will refer to the whole of a language like German or English as a "language game. How does one know that a philosopher is using an ordinary term in a special sense?
Think of this as a model of language in which everything has been simplified. We sometimes use language more or eesay like this in our own culture, but in our own culture we would throw in a few more words and people would end up using language to do more than fetch a few stones. We could imagine that the language of 2 was the whole language of A and B; even the whole language of a tribe.
The children are brought up to perform these actions, to use these words as they do so, and to react in this way to the words of others. Notice that Wittgenstein says that the people are trained to "react in this way" to the words of others. Gamess this language game, then, people seem to be using language to prompt people to do specific things bring beams or slabs. Think of other "reactions" a similar language game might prompt in a fuller language. Imagine, as might be the case in our world, that the workers worked on different jobs on different days.
And when the work supervisor on one day called out "beam" the worker was to take the beam behind a fence, and on another day the task was to crush the beam with a emglish stone. In our language, at least for normal adults, words and phrases have multiple purposes, and the listeners must interpret the context to know what to do. Onn in Wittgenstein's simple situation, there is just the word and a single correct response. Since these correct responses are not being thought of as inherited reflexes, we might ask how they are acquired?
Wittgenstein addresses this concern in 7.
B has to pass the stones, and that in the order in which A needs them. God may be transcendent, but for the believer he is also experienced in the real world, and there is cognitive meaning in their claims about him. The point is that even though the exercises of pointing and naming may be useful in learning a language game, such exercises are not enough to explain the acquisition of meaningful language. The claim that no language game can be criticised by someone from outside the same language game, assumes that all statements are equally valid.
In the practice of the use of language 2 one party calls out the words, the other acts on them. In instruction in the language the following process will occur: These are familiar exercises for teaching children any language. Notice, however, that teaching a child how to pronounce a term or name an object does not thereby teach the child how to use the term.
When one shews someone the king in chess and says: Only when the student knows the game of chess, has some idea that the pieces move about a board and that players try to win by capturing the other's pieces, and what that means, can the teacher's statement, "This is the king," show the student how to use this information to play the game of chess.
How can you ask a name, for example, for a onn function in quantum physics if you do not know anything about quantum physics? And when the child first learns to speak a simple word like "dog" the term does not necessarily fit into its schema of things so that he can use the term as more mature language users do. We can imagine that the child's word "dog" might initially be applied to a range of inappropriate things, not only cows and pigs, but it might be used to mean I want to go outside where the child encountered the dog.
And this may happen more than we realize because we are so familiar with the concept "dog" that we could well presume that ib child was using it within the rules of our language when the child is not doing so. The point is that even though the exercises of pointing and naming may be useful in learning a language game, such exercises are not enough to explain the acquisition of meaningful language.
There is, however, another form of training children in language wssay will be helpful here.
English on in language essay games Writers knows
Philosophically, our culture tends to overlook this training, widespread though it is, in favor of training in pointing and naming. Wittgenstein introduces this other form of training when he says: I will call these games 'language-games' and will sometimes speak of a primitive language as a language-game. And the processes of naming the stones and of repeating words after someone might also be called language-games. Think of much of the use of words in games like ring-a-ring-a-roses. Also, think of "patty-cake, patty-cake, baker's man," or think of "this little piggy went to market, this little piggy The words can be memorized along with with specific actions corresponding to the words e.
Primitive language games such as 2 are rather like that.
- And the logical positivists use the word "nonsense" not in its ordinary sense of "without meaning" but to refer to a statement that cannot be independently verified Ayer, ; Shawver,
- The children are brought up to perform these actions, to use these words as they do so, and to react in this way to the words of others.
- A calls them out; --B brings the stone which he has learnt to bring at such-and-such a call.
The worker might learn to bring a beam on command without knowing the purpose of the beam, or how to use the word "beam" in other contexts. And children learning English are taught such mechanical responses before they understand the meaning of what they do and say. All of these things are "language games", but Wittgenstein adds: Sometimes it will refer to the languafe models of language that Wittgenstein constructs for us to study, sometimes to the supporting language practices that engish children to learn and finally, it will refer to the whole of a language like German or English as a "language game.
Here he speaks of the multiplicity of language games. Review the multiciplicity of language games in the following examples, and in others: Giving orders, and obeying them-- Describing the appearance of an object, or giving its measurements-- Constructing an object esday a description a drawing -- Reporting an event-- Forming or teasing a hypothesis-- Presenting the results of an experiment in tables and diagrams-- Making up a story; and reading it-- Singing catches